Explanation of Relationship Between Pressure and Poiling Point of Water [closed]

Explanation of relationship between pressure and poiling point of water [closed]

The boiling point of any substance may be defined as 'the temperature at which the pressure of its own vapors become equal to the external pressure'. So for example in the case of water, at 100oC, the vapor pressure become equal to approx. 1 atm. Now if you increase the pressure further, you would need to heat the sample more such that the new pressure is balanced. Hence the boiling point is increased. The opposite happens for a decrease in the external pressure

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How can dynamic and static pressure be explained?

You are very close. Your explanation of static pressure is correct, but not your dynamic pressure. Ram air pressure is what the pitot tube measures, in other words the total pressure experienced. It is your airspeed gauge which measures dynamic pressure by mechanically (in the case of a traditional pitot-static system) subtracting static pressure from ram air pressure. If I was explaining this to a layman I would say that ram air pressure is equivalent to sticking your hand out the window of a moving car, while static pressure is the pressure inside the car. That's a bit of an over-simplification as the pressure inside the car will be lower than outside due to the movement through the air, but it gets the point across

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Types of Pressure Transducer

Hi friends, In this article, I am discussing some important types of pressure transducer, pressure transducer working principle, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. So let us start. Pressure transducers are used to measure pressure. In a pressure transducer, firstly, the pressure is converted into a displacement by an elastic element like Bourdon tube, diaphragm, bellows, etc. And then this displacement is converted into a change in some electrical parameter. Being proportional to the applied pressure, this change in the electrical parameter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Some principle types of pressure transducer are as under: Strain gauges can be used for pressure measurement also. In this method, a strain gauge is attached to a pressure sensing diaphragm. When the pressure is applied to the diaphragm, the strain gauge is strained. This causes a change in resistance of the gauge which can be measured by a Wheatstone bridge. The detailed working of strain gauges has been discussed earlier. You can refer to that article for details. The advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: However, there are some disadvantages too. These are: • the need for fixed supply, In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure is converted into a displacement by a suitable primary sensing element such as a diaphragm, Bourdon tube, etc. The magnitude of output voltage depends upon the position of the wiper. In this way, pressure variations are get converted in the form of output voltage and can be measured by a suitable instrument. These are simple, cheap and can be made quite linear. But wear and tear due to frequent movement of the wiper, high noise level, and limited resolution are the main limitations of this method. In this type of pressure transducer, the pressure causes a change in the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The change in capacitance of the capacitor is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. The figure shows the different parts of a capacitor type pressure transducer. It is essentially a parallel plate capacitor having one fixed plate and the other free to move as the applied pressure changes. The movable plate is usually in the form of a diaphragm. When pressure is applied on the movable plate, the distance between the plates of the capacitor changes. This causes a corresponding change in the capacitance of the capacitor. The change in capacitance can be determined and is a measure of the magnitude of applied pressure. Generally, capacitor transducer forms, one of the arms of a bridge circuit. When no external pressure is applied, the ammeter connected in the bridge shows no deflection i.e. output voltage is zero. When pressure is applied, the bridge becomes unbalanced and causes some output voltage corresponding to the applied pressure. Thus output voltage of the bridge will be a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Usually, the meter is calibrated to indicate the pressure directly. The main advantages of this type of pressure transducer are: However, they have limited range and severely affected by dirt and other contamination. They are mostly used in motor vehicles. The most commonly used inductive type transducer is the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The pressure can also be measured by an LDVT. It has been discussed earlier where it was used to measure displacement. You can refer to that article for details. To measure pressure, with an LVDT, the pressure is converted into displacement by a Bourdon tube. This displacement causes the movement of the magnetic core of the LVDT. Since the exactly similar secondary coils of the LVDT are connected in phase opposition, the magnitude of the output voltage will depend upon the position of the magnetic core. Initially, when no pressure is applied, the core will remain in the central position and the magnitude of the induced voltage in each secondary is the same due to their symmetrical position with respect to the core. On the application of pressure, the core shifts from its central position; causing the induced voltages in the two secondaries to differ. In this condition, the output voltage is equal to the difference in the two secondary voltages and will vary linearly with the displacement of the core. Thus output voltage of the LVDT is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. Advantages of this type of pressure transducers are: • the linear variation of output voltage with displacement up to 5 mm and, However, there are some disadvantages too: • performance is affected by stray magnetic fields and temperature variations, • a large displacement is required for reasonable amount of differential output. The piezoelectric transducer can be used to measure pressure. The working of a piezoelectric transducer has been discussed earlier. For details, you can refer to that article. Piezoelectric transducer transducers are used to measure high pressure that changes very rapidly e.g. pressure changes inside the cylinder of a gasoline engine, compressor, rocket, etc. The pressure changes in these devices are so rapid that ordinary pressure transducers can not respond to them. Pressure below atmospheric pressure is called low pressure. This range extends from the normal pressure of 760 mm of mercury column down to 10-8 of the mercury column. No single transducer can cover this full range. A large number of transducers have been developed for covering different ranges of low pressure. Here I will discuss the Pirani gauge only. This gauge can measure pressures ranging from 10-1 to 10-3 mm of the mercury column. For pressures above 1 mm of the mercury column, the thermal conductivity of a gas is independent of pressure. But for the pressures below 1 mm of the mercury column, it decreases linearly with the decrease in pressure and vice-versa. This property of gases is utilized in the Pirani gauge to measure the pressure. At the pressures below 10-3 mm of Hg of the mercury column, the heat conduction becomes very small and the gauge does not work. A Pirani gauge consists of a wire filament enclosed in a chamber having a side tube for connection to the pressure source. And the gauge is connected in the Wheatstone bridge as shown in Figure. Here, the gauge forms one of the four arms of the bridge. Initially, when current passes through the filament, an equilibrium temperature is reached shortly. When no pressure is applied, the bridge is balanced and no current flows through ammeter. When the source whose pressure is to measured is connected to the gauge, the pressure inside the chamber is increased. And the thermal conductivity of the gas surrounding the filament will increase. This means that gas will conduct more heat from the filament, thus lowering the temperature of the filament. The decrease in filament temperature will lower its resistance. The reverse will when the pressure inside the chamber, decreases. This change in resistance of the filament makes the bridge unbalanced and current flows through the ammeter connected in the bridge. The deflection of the ammeter is a measure of the magnitude of the pressure. This ammeter can be calibrated to read the pressure directly. The advantages of Pirani gauge are simplicity, easy to use, ruggedness and cheapness. However, its disadvantage is that its calibration depends upon the type of gas in which the pressure is measured. Thanks for reading about "types of pressure transducer".

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In Medical Treatment, the Pressure Measurement Is Inaccurate and the Sensor Tracks the Whole Process
Generally, the designer of medical equipment must consider the thorny problem of withstanding condensation humidity when selecting pressure sensor. They need to carefully consider the functional characteristics, packaging type and cost. In addition, there are few other sensing options in medical equipment except for heavy-duty medium isolation pressure sensors. This kind of pressure sensor was once a better choice before the introduction of liquid medium compatible circuit board sensor.For the application of equipment with medium and low pressure requirements (including gas / liquid chromatograph, chemical analyzer, ventilator, blood analyzer and diagnostic equipment), the pressure sensor must not only be able to directly contact with liquid medium or withstand humid environment, but also provide highly accurate pressure measurement results for a variety of media such as exhaled gas, reagent, sample and cleaning fluid. Circuit board mounted pressure sensors are often the preferred solution in pressure ranges below 150 psi and narrow space applications. They can achieve everything in terms of function, package size, reliability and cost.To obtain the most accurate pressure reading, the sensor should be as close as possible to the medium to be measured. However, not all pressure sensors are compatible with liquid media, which poses a big problem for medical device designers. In many cases, they need to design additional components such as bypass or filter to solve the humidity problem, or reconsider the positioning of components, especially setting pipelines in the system to avoid any fluid contact with the sensor. These tasks require additional design time and cost.Liquid and moisture proofAt present, sensor manufacturers have developed circuit board mounted sensors. These sensors can not only isolate the liquid medium and highly humid environment, and are suitable for medical equipment with low and medium pressure measurement requirements, but also simplify the design without additional protection functions or redesigning the product (ensuring that the fluid will not contact the sensor).In chemical analyzers, pressure sensors are required to provide highly accurate and repeatable measurements at low pressures and to withstand higher pressures during flushing and cleaning.For example, liquid media compatible circuit board mounted pressure sensors are a good choice for chemical analyzers. Because the chemical analyzer requires accurate measurement of the liquid flowing through the system in a repeated manner. Generally speaking, in a chemical analyzer, it is necessary to use a pipette to suck the sample liquid, and then drop the sample into the sample bottle for mixing or analysis. In this process, the pressure sensor can not only ensure the accurate suction of the required sample, but also detect whether the pipette is unblocked or whether the pipette is correctly placed in the sample bottle.The pressure sensor must meet the requirements of high-precision measurement and repeatable operation when measuring in low pressure environment. At the same time, they should also be able to withstand the high pressure caused by flushing or cleaning the liquid path. All this is based on direct contact with the liquid medium to be tested.Examples of such sensors include 24pc / 26pc circuit board mounted pressure sensors launched by Honeywell sensing and control department, which can detect small pressure changes between readings and accurately measure the specific liquid flow through the system in a repeatable manner to ensure that the liquid has flow and flow rate data (which is the core point for the operation of the analysis equipment). In addition to being used as a pressure sensor for one-sided contact with liquid media, the differential sensor is also a unique solution with dual pressure ports compatible with liquid media.Multiple optionsHoneywell trustability pressure sensor series has a wide range of configuration options, which can greatly shorten the design and development time.In ventilator applications, circuit board mounted pressure sensors are used to measure the airflow inhaled and exhaled by patients. In order to ensure that the air and oxygen pressures do not exceed the values set by medical staff, the sensor needs to have high stability and high accuracy. Honeywell trustability HSC / SSC pressure sensor has extremely strict accuracy, and can detect the pressure range as low as 250 PA (1 inch water column), which is perfect for ventilator applications. In addition, these sensors also support I2C or SPI digital output, which can be directly connected with microprocessor or microcontroller, which not only simplifies the design, but also improves the system performance.The trustability sensor has the option of liquid medium, so it is suitable for applications in direct contact with liquid medium or condensation environment. These options are key considerations when placing the sensor close to the patient, especially in the exhalation part of the ventilator. The sensor must withstand the high humidity air caused by the patient's cough and exhalation.The emergence of 24pc / 26pc and trustability HSC / SSC pressure sensors solves the design idea that designers of chemical analyzers, respirators or other similar types of medical equipment want to locate the pressure sensor as close as possible to the fluid or humid environment, so as to obtain the most accurate pressure reading. These sensors are not only resistant to a variety of non corrosive, deionized liquid or gas environments, but also have a large number of specification options, such as pressure range, package type and digital / analog output range, which can provide great flexibility for the design of medical devices.Since many medical device applications may come into contact with fluids and gases, designers should always give priority to pressure sensors with liquid medium compatibility to simplify the design. In addition, they should know the type of fluid that the pressure sensor may contact to ensure its compatibility with the fluid.The designer should also consider the pressure sensor with complete compensation, amplification and calibration characteristics to make the operation easier. Because with these sensors, the design of signal conditioning components on the printed circuit board can be avoided, which can bring benefits such as space saving, increased reliability, cost reduction and simplification.Match the requirements between the sensor and the applicationOf course, in any case, the best choice should be determined according to the application. For example, in the application of alarm circuit, the designer may give priority to the low-cost pressure sensor compatible with liquid medium and without amplification and compensation characteristics.At the same time, look for pressure sensors that are easier to integrate into the design. This means that the device needs to provide a variety of port, packaging and output (analog and digital) options. In addition, the pre inspection function of the sensor is another advantage to speed up the development and production cycle.
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