What Is the Best Way to Track IR Led?

If you are just building a few units and not a big scaler product, I would change the plan. Check out Nintendo Wii IR camera - they contain IR camera and output the position of one or more IR emitters.By using a ready module you can save your time to build the interactive functionality instead of building a camera system and OpenCV processing and integration.

1. who is the band led zepelin?

Oh wow, How cute, you do not know led Zeppelin and your silly wittle Crush wikes them!

2. What led to the revolution in Tunisia?

basically the internet they can see how other people live especially their relatives who escaped

3. led light circuit ? ?

"when i remove the power i would then like them to power down 1 at a time in sequence" Ca not do this, as you have no power to keep them lit. But you may be able to use a very large capacitor to supply that energy. If they are drawing 10mA each, that is 160mA average. If the power down sequence takes 1 second total, you would need a 10000 to 50000F cap. But the cap would take a lot of energy to charge up, and would be physically large and expensive. .

4. Parking lights led help?

Wire colors in cars can be arbitrary It is important to pay attention to polarity when working with car electrical as cars operate in DC. The year, make, and model of your car has bearing on any further answer given as some cars have a positive metallic return. The light fixture you are attempting to hook up; is it an LED (light emitting diode)? Due to the nature of an LEDs construction, it must be hooked up right the first otherwise you burn it out. Also, an LED usually needs a resistor to prevent fuses from blowing. Sometimes LED fixtures are no better than OEM incandescent. An electrical circuit in a car is designed to carry a certain amount of current at a certain voltage. If the replacement fixture uses current and voltage too far from OEM spec, you could have a FIRE. All Data, a company that provided Tech Specs to automotive shops, will sell you an inexpensive subscription that will have all the factory diagrams, instructions and system operation descriptions for your specific vehicle.

5. Can I use an LED bulb in a incandescent only fixture?

If the LED bulb is dimable it might work. Typically when you see incandescent only it is modifying the AC wave form. Incandescent bulbs do not care and can work over a pretty broad range. Where bulbs that have a solid state controller or transformer in it are pretty limited to a standard AC wave form. And if that LED/CF bulb can be dimmed, they they can handle the most common type of AC dimming only

6. Anyone love led zeppelin?

Yep, I do love Led Zeppelin. My favorite song of theirs is "When The Levee Breaks". "The Song Remains The Same" is the best Led Zeppelin concert movie. You can probably get it on eBay or BestBuy.com

7. Baby led weaning with an almost 11 month old?

Take the junk food and mush away and offer her things she can pick up and eat. And turn your back. the less you comment on what she eats, the less pickiness you will have to deal with later. There is no reason that your baby cannot have a bit of grated apple or carrot, a piece of broccoli, or some pasta or whole grain toast as part of a meal or a snack. She does not need puffs and wheels, which are basically junk.

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I Had a Contractor Install a AC Unit and They Drilled the Hole so that It Is Higher and Is a Way for
I had a contractor install a AC unit and they drilled the hole so that it is higher and is a way for insects and lizards to enter the house.How should I seal the additional shape drilled in the wall?You can use PU Foam Aerosol Crack Filler , which will expand & seal the gap, it is available in Flipkart/Amazon.Cement Plaster or POP can be used to fill the open space between the pipe & holes, either from Out side or inside which ever is feasibleI had a contractor install a AC unit and they drilled the hole so that it is higher and is a way for insects and lizards to enter the house.How should I seal the additional shape drilled in the wall?.— — — — — —Crusade for the truth concerning dinosaurs "great lizards" evolution-creation please inform me.?I trust science, because I am a scientist and I know how it works. It's based on the natural world and self-correcting. I will go with the experts with degrees in the field.— — — — — —What would be a good lizard?rankins aint much smaller than beardies really. chamelons dont live long. uromastyx dont grow too big— — — — — —Do you think this website is a scam? check it out. The cheapest lizards I've ever seen. monitor,uromatyxs etc.?I took a quick look and the biggest thing that stood out to me were the ones they called "rainbow lizards" in the monitor section. The common name I have seen to go with the scientific one is Giant whiptail. Also they have a section for agama lizards yet the bearded dragon is in the "other lizard" section. The prices are incredible, but I have to wonder what shape the lizards are truly in— — — — — —How do I save this lizard's life?Keep it warm and gently force feed sugary water and mused food like egg or cat foofood— — — — — —What kinda lizard did I see?!?!?A chameleon.You said transparent color right?— — — — — —Types of Lizards to put in my terrarium?That's not a big terrarium. You could put maybe at the most an anole or a leopard gecko. Not a Chameleon as they need screen terrrariums. And you know you can not put "lizards" in your terrarium. You can put a LIZARD in your terrarium. No more than one.— — — — — —What lizard should I get?I am figuring since your a female you want something pretty cute but cool too. I love lizards and I worked at a pet store before so I took home and also have lizards. I think you would love a Leopard Gecko. Their inexpensive, docile, adorable, and fun to have. The gecko itself is not expensive if you buy a baby. They start getting expensive when you get into color & pattern detail. The extras like the cage, hiding spots, and heating equipment can get a little expensive but it only a one-time fee. Once you buy the set-up there's little money involved in maintaining your gecko. Crickets are only 10 cents a piece and u need only like 8 every other day. You will love Leopard geckos, and you will grow to really care about them because their so damn cute and friendly!! No other lizard is as docile as the leopard gecko except the African Fat-tailed gecko. Their cute too but a little too scarred to train it to get really used to you. Need any more info, let me know, I've worked in pet shops— — — — — —whats the best type of lizard to buy?iguanas, they are really nice animals if treated right— — — — — —I want a pet lizard. What's a good lizard?All of them tho that's my opinion but Iguana's are not beginner reptiles... get ting quite huge & can be ornery as heck !!! To me the best beginner lizard would be a Bearded Dragon aka Beardies , they need proper warmth of around 90 degree's in the basking, from an overhead incandescent light attached to an inline dimmer switch for temp regulating, UVA/UVB Full Spectrum lighting either incandescent or fluorescent tubed of 10.0 changed every 6 months or so, soaking dish for soaking or drinking from , proper vivarium ( NOT an aquarium ! ) but exo terrarium or wood with glass front & proper air circulation of 24x24 - 36 inches long, no electric heat mats / pads, tape or rock , no loose bedding such as sand, wood shavings, chips, bark , soil, pebbles, moss . .. but of whole paper, fake grass, securely attached logs or rocks , a good sized hide / house and best foods are those of the worm or wingless flies , best to alternate between soft bodied - wax, butter worms & hard bodied - meal worms... fed from inescapable food dishes , lightly dusted or sprayed with calcium D3 - not crickets,!! 2 thermometers - one for temps , one for humidity that reads not more than 40% for the most .... sooo this is for starters & should help you on your quest if you care to do more searching ! Beginning costs around $250. 00 for a reg Bearides, Morph's ( Beardies of different colors ) can be more expensive ! Take Care
My Cat Was Shriveled Up at the Bottom of My Steps... Please Help!?
It sounds as though your cat probably has renal failure brought on by age. This is literally the kidneys shutting down. You can call your local hospital and they can probably tell you a number for an emergency vet that is on call for the weekend. Do NOT put the cat on the heat pad, as this will only raise its temp if it has one and can lead to further dehydration. Keep feeding it the soupy food mixture to try and get some fluids in him. Definitely call the hospital about the emergency vet though, this cat needs attention fast. Good luck to you. I just lost my little nine-month-old kitten last week to a heart attack brought on by renal failure, and it hurts so much. My thoughts and prayers are with you.1. I'm sick of my brother.?ok had the same problem if he tells on you you will not hear good so you need to be smart make him piss off and make him your slave. he is 9 at age i think he would start going out with out telling your mom so you can make him scared by telling your mom he did this or if he has girl friend tell him you do not even know how to kiss he will tell on you but for a weel he wont even come close to you2. cat getting skinny - dont think he is well?What is his surgery for? At this age, it could be anything. He could be fine but slowing down due to age. He could be starting into kidney failure. He could just have a cold. Talk to the vet about this BEFORE they put him under for any surgery!3. Is 37 too old for a navel piercing?NO 37 is NOT TOO OLD!!! I am 19 and I got mine a year ago and i know that makes hardly any comparison to most But think of it this way. i am sure you are considering gettin one for the SAME reason younger people are. BECAUSE YOU WANT TO AND YOU FEEL THAT IT WILL LOOK GOOD. I would feel the same about my moma gettin a piercing or tattoo as well but hey, "mama gotta have a life too" I've known people my age to look back and regret a peircing or tat as well so age has no tie to what you decide to do. jus live 4 the moment. i say go 4 it. yea, u gone have some haters, . some people wish they could have what you have, 3 kids and a flat tummy, i say different people, different tastes. It's all about what YOU want. By the way, i am a girl, not a guy. I just noticed my pic represents a man..... and me, here, talking bout me havin a navel ring sounds rather,..... well, u know.....4. Michael Jackson Thriller zombie makeup?Go to a local costume shop and you can get everything you need. You will need spirit gum, any white makeup would do, makeup wedges, black eyeliner, you should also get a blueish gray to get the deadish look, and black. I used the a Mehron CreamBlend Stick for the blueish gray. I used a Graftobian Disguise Stick for the black and you could get that in any other color too. All you do is dip that in water and it is ready to use. You just let it dry and you can reuse it over and over. To do mine I just applied spirit gum to my face, only a small area at a time so it does not dry, then take a tissue and rip it up so the edges are jagged and stick it on. It gives wrinkles and cracks and give the skin the appearance of age and dryness. Do that to all areas you want to have this appearance. Then use the other colors to contour your cheekbones to manipulate the light to give the appearance of sunken in eyes and cheekbones. you could even use layers of tissue (with spirit gum in between) to build ontop of your cheeckbones to actually make them larger and them farther away from your eyes. Be sure everything you get is nontoxic. The disguise sticks are not and are safe to use on your lips and even on your teeth. It tastes bad but it makes between your teeth look black and aged. Good Luck! Oh, and you can buy or not buy spirit gum remover. I never did. the stuff can just roll off. But it DOES stick to hair and is painful to remove without a remover. Do not apply it to eyebrows and it will stick in your hair. Removal can hurt without a remover. But that is up to you.
Do You Trust Ivanka Trump? What Has Led You to Feel the Way You Do About Her?
Do I trust Ivanka Trump? No, not at all. She is of the same mold as her father and siblings; grifting to become richer at the expense of others. None of them have had to work hard, as granddaddy Fred did all the grafting. Donald Sr. then managed to get people to work for him for nothing, by not paying them for the work they did, knowing they couldn't afford to sue him. He surrounded himself with similar grifters, looking for angles to cheat people out of money, including contractors and banks. Ivanka only has experience from selling daddy's name (Kushner isn't worth so much, especially as father-in-law has been in prison), and that name was only worth anything while there were enough people in the world to believe the fairytale that this "rich, powerful, smart, successful, beautiful family" is worth buying into.So Trump brags about being a billionaire, but no one has seen his tax returns.He claims to be smart, but no one has seen his grades.He claims to be a successful businessman, despite multiple bankruptcies such that many banks wouldn't touch him, he was persona non grata. And he bankrupted a casino, for heavens sake!In 2016, the only bank willing to lend to him, Deutsche Bank, was trying to find a way out of being associated with his bigotry during the campaign (too bad, Deutsche, you reap what you sow,,,) as they seemed to have been so desperate to be touched by the fairytale despite Donnie defaulting on loans with other branches of their own bank!Donnie claimed to want to bring jobs back to America, even when both he and Ivanka had all their products made overseas, because it's cheaper.So why should Ivanka be trusted? She hasn't had a very good role model in Dad. Because she's a woman? And women are supposed to help their sisters right? Not this one. This one likes to sit on her pedestal, looking down on the rest of womankind. She pretends that she cares, and even plays at advocating for women in business, which she would benefit from if it works, but that's it. The book she wrote is all about furthering that fairytale image, which if you care to look closer, is fragile. She's too invested in her image and her family to speak out on behalf of any of the women who have been insulted, assaulted or bullied by Daddy, of which are many. Nor will she speak out against his treatment of immigrants, even though she converted to Judaism because of Jared, a group of people who have suffered the very worst treatment because of their religion, how could any of them stand by and watch human beings being treated like this?So, the daughter of a grifter, married to a grifter, with a gleaming image of fictional accomplishments, with no qualifications except how to live off her name, with no interest in making America better for people not like her, is not worthy of trust to serve this country and its people in any position imaginable. That was plain during her attempts to talk to world leaders recently as part of Daddy's administration.The only thing I can trust about her, is that her shoes and handbags will continue to be made in China by people being paid a pittance. If she was really an advocate for Americans she would criticize her father, make him change or leave the White House rather than continue the charade, but oh, then she might not have a pedestal to climb up onto and that's what she needs, just like Dad• Related QuestionsWhat's the coolest trash talk that has occurred via letters?I am shocked this isnt on the list yetIn 1676, the Ottoman Empire was still in its glory days. Their mighty army instilled fear in even the most powerful monarchs of Europe, whom could only fight on equal footing by banding together in Holy League coalitions.Yet despite all their strength, the Ottomans were having trouble dealing with the unruly Cossacks that dominated the fertile lands of Ukraine along their northern borders. Proud, martial, and egalitarian, the Cossacks defied all established authority and social norms in their libertarian pursuit of independence and self-reliance. They did not care for the rules of warfare and fought a guerrilla-esque war with the Ottomans in countless raids and skirmishes, and by that point the Sultan had enough of their nuisance.At the time, the bulk of the Ottoman army was preparing for the Vienna campaign, which would become the high water mark of Ottoman expansion into Europe. Not keen to split his resources, Sultan Mehmed IV decided to attempt to awe the Cossacks instead. Thus the Sultan sent a letter to Otaman Ivan Sirko of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, demanding the latter submit to the Ottoman Empire and become a vassal state:As the Sultan; son of Muhammad; brother of the sun and moon; grandson and viceroy of God; ruler of the kingdoms of Macedonia, Babylon, Jerusalem, Upper and Lower Egypt; emperor of emperors; sovereign of sovereigns; extraordinary knight, never defeated; steadfast guardian of the tomb of Jesus Christ; trustee chosen by God Himself; the hope and comfort of Muslims; confounder and great defender of Christians I command you, the Zaporogian Cossacks, to submit to me voluntarily and without any resistance, and to desist from troubling me with your attacks.The Cossacks, however, had zero respect for such lofty lineages and titles. Their entire society and culture was built upon a disdain for traditional society and its petty aristocracy. Many of their members were former serfs/slaves who escaped to seek the freedom of living their own life. They admired the nomadic ways and the idea that anyone could earn a name for themselves through strength and resourcefulness.Thus, they decided to respond to Sultan Mehmed IV in true Cossack fashion with a deluge of taunts, insults, and threats:O sultan, Turkish devil and damned devil's kin, secretary to Lucifer himself. What the devil kind of knight are you, who cannot slay a hedgehog with your naked arse? The devil shits, and your army eats. You shall not, you son of a whore, make subjects of Christian sons; we have no fear of your army, by land and by sea we will battle with you, your mother.You Babylonian scullion, Macedonian wheelwright, brewer of Jerusalem, goat-er of Alexandria, swineherd of Greater and Lesser Egypt, pig of Armenia, Podolian thief, catamite of Tartary, hangman of Kamyanets, and fool of all the world and underworld, an idiot before God, grandson of the Serpent, and the crick in our dick. Pig's snout, mare's arse, slaughterhouse cur, unchristened brow, screwing your own mother!So the Zaporozhians declare, you lowlife, that you won't even be herding pigs for the Christians. Now we'll conclude, for we don't know the date and don't own a calendar; the moon's in the sky, the year with the Lord, the day's the same over here as it is over there; for this kiss our arse!Its only fair to say at this point that the original letter was never found. The Cossacks were also not interested in the bureaucracy of traditional societies such as thorough record-keeping. It is unknown how much of the reply is historical and how much of it came from the embellishment of folk legends. Nevertheless, the story endures as one of the most classic examples of the Cossack spirit.For those who find the original reply a bit rambling, there is also the shortened version that Paradox Interactive came up with as a game trailer, complete with matching art and music! Though in my opinion, its just not the same without that second paragraph in its full glory, turning around every one of the Sultans many titles and mocking him with it
Power Struggle Between Display System Integrators and LED Display Manufacturers
At the time of LED conference all-in-one machine competing in major exhibitions, who is the leader of this market segment has become one of the focuses of the industry."For the conference all-in-one machine market alone, the original display system integrators and the current LED display enterprises have their own advantages." an industry person familiar with this market told Gaogong that the integrators are closer to customers by virtue of the customer channel resources left by the previous LCD splicing screen era, while the LED display manufacturers have advantages in products and costs.But there is no doubt that whether as integrators of "old forces" or as LED display manufacturers of new forces, they will not give up this big market.01 old faction transitionConference display market has long been the inherent position of audio and video integrators and display system integrators. LCD splicing and DLP large screen are the main weapons for these manufacturers to occupy the conference display market.According to the interview and investigation of senior engineer's new display, in the global large screen field a few years ago, LCD splicing screen and DLP large screen were widely used, of which Samsung and LG accounted for nearly 80% of the domestic LCD splicing screen market, mainly used in conference room large screen, video screen command, supervision and control and other fields."In fact, these occasions have high requirements for the screen, especially for long-term and stable operation." the person in charge of the display agent enterprise who did not want to be named told Gaogong that the new display, such as Samsung's own brand is very strong, and the stability of its LCD splicing screen is also the best in the industry. Therefore, Samsung splicing screen has always occupied most of the domestic conference rooms and other markets, and the gross profit is also very high.At that time, LED display was affected by price, cost and technology maturity. Although it also entered some conference room fields, it was not the mainstream.Insiders told senior engineer that the original LCD splicing screen and DLP large screen market is much larger than the current LED display market.However, the maximum limit size of LCD splicing screen is 110 inches, which can not meet the requirements of larger display screen. At the same time, its splicing gap also greatly affects the display effect. DLP large screen also has size restrictions. The display effect of projection is very poor.The screen display carries the most intuitive visual experience of the conference and plays an important role in improving the user experience.Since 2018, led small spacing display has developed rapidly and has become the main force of LED display growth. At present, led small spacing display technology, process and industrial chain support have been very mature, and the cost and price are declining. Led small spacing display has opened up a broad space for indoor display.Small spacing and mini / micro led replace the original LCD splicing screen, DLP large screen and projection to become the main force of conference display.Audio and video integrators and display system integrators also recognize this trend, and use LED conference display products to re compete and consolidate their original advantages in the conference market by building their own factories and looking for OEM."We have a clearer understanding of customers' needs, and channels and customer relations are our important advantages." an audio and video integrator who has entered the LED conference all-in-one machine market told Gaogong new display that most of the orders for LED conference all-in-one machines shipped in the market in the first half of the year were robbed by these old forces.02 rise of new forcesThe products are the weapons for new power LED display manufacturers to compete for the conference all-in-one machine market.In the first half of 2020, with the outbreak of the epidemic, the demand for all-in-one conference machines increased sharply due to the application scenarios such as telecommuting and teleconferencing. A large number of LED conference all-in-one products have also emerged in the market. Most of these are launched by LED display manufacturers.LED display manufacturers such as powerful giant color, liad, Lehman optoelectronics, alto electronics, HIDA electronics, Zhouming technology and Shende color either display with small spacing, or use mini LED products. What's more, micro LED is also used in all-in-one conference machine products.In particular, we are about to usher in the era of "5g 8K", which puts forward higher definition and higher quality requirements for screen display.These are regarded by the new forces as the motivation for LED display to occupy the absolute dominant share of the conference display market."The medium and high-end conference market is a big blue ocean market. At present, cob technology micro LED is mainly used in the field of super large size, such as more than 110 inches, because its new technology will bring cheaper, closer to the market and more civilian products." Li MANTIE, chairman of Lehman Optoelectronics, once took Lehman's 138 inch micro led conference all-in-one machine system as an example, Said it would drop to one-third of its current price in three years.Riad and Alto electronics also take the conference all-in-one machine as the key market to expand this year.Liad also said in the semi annual report that from January to June, the company initially established the channel network of video conference system, and the revenue recognized by video conference system increased by 70% over the same period of last year.Liad believes that the conference tablet has gradually formed an alternative to the traditional projector and electronic whiteboard, but the penetration rate is currently estimated to be only 1%. In the past two years, with the rise of mobile office and other scenes, the market has gradually opened. During the epidemic period, the large-scale promotion of telecommuting also brought a new "window period" to the conference intelligent tablet market.There are also led display manufacturers positioning themselves as hardware product providers, hoping to cooperate with system integrators to jointly develop the conference market.Zhou Zhangqiao, senior analyst of LED Research Institute of advanced industry and Research (GGII), believes that whoever can really improve the user experience and highlight the advantages in terms of cost, whether it is a new force or an old force, can occupy more market share.The source of the article: WeChat official account: Lehman optoelectronics] welcome to add attention! Please indicate the source of the article.
Detailed Explanation of Main Characteristics and Characteristics of High Power Gan Amplifier
Gallium nitride (GAN) power semiconductor technology has made great contributions to improving the performance level of RF / microwave power amplification. Gan transistors have achieved higher output power density, wider bandwidth and better DC to RF efficiency by reducing parasitic components of devices, adopting shorter gate length and higher operating voltage. For example, the radar system application demonstration of GaN based X-band amplifier has been made in 2014, which can provide 8kw pulse output power to replace traveling wave tube (TWT) devices and TWT amplifiers. 32kw versions of these solid-state Gan power amplifiers are expected in 2016. While looking forward to these amplifiers, we will investigate some main characteristics and characteristics of high-power Gan amplifiers.Not long ago, Gan was also the preferred technology for reflected frequency electronic warfare (crew) applications, and thousands of amplifiers have been delivered for practical use. Now, the technology is also deployed in the field of airborne electronic warfare. The amplifier under development can provide hundreds of watts of output power in multiple octaves of RF / microwave range. Several versions of such broadband EW power amplifiers will be released this year.Subsequent research includes improving the linearity of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) waveform, which is adopted by many military communication systems, including universal data link (CDL), broadband network waveform (WNW), soldier radio waveform (SRW) and broadband satellite communication (SATCOM) applications. ADI's "bit to RF" program will integrate the company's advantages in baseband signal processing and Gan power amplifier (PA) technology. By using techniques such as predistortion and envelope modulation, this integration will help to improve PA linearity and efficiency.Gan devices released in the past few years include both discrete field effect transistors (FETs) and single-chip microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), which have been widely used in high-power microwave amplifier systems. Such devices can be provided by many wafer factories and device manufacturers, and are usually made of 100mm silicon carbide (SIC) wafer. Gallium nitride on silicon process is also under consideration, but the thermal conductivity and conductivity of silicon are relatively poor, offsetting its cost advantage in high-performance and high reliability applications. The gate length of these devices is as small as 0.2 μ m. It supports working in millimeter wave band. In many high-frequency applications and all low-frequency applications (except the most cost sensitive applications), GaN based devices have largely replaced gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon transverse diffusion metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) devices.RF power amplifier designers pay attention to Gan devices because they support very high operating voltage (three to five times higher than GaAs), and the allowable current per unit FET gate width is roughly twice that of GaAs devices. These characteristics are of great significance to PA designers, which means that higher load impedance can be supported at a given output power level. The output impedance of previous designs based on GaAs or LDMOS is often extremely low (relative to the typical system impedance of 50 Ω or 75 Ω). Low device impedance will limit the achievable bandwidth, that is, as the impedance conversion ratio between the amplification device and its load increases, the number of elements and insertion loss will also increase. Due to this high impedance, the early users of such devices only installed one device in a mismatched test fixture, applied DC bias, and driven the device with RF / microwave test signals in some cases.Due to these operating characteristics and their exceptionally high reliability, Gan devices are also suitable for high reliability space applications. Several device suppliers have conducted life tests at 225 ° C or higher junction temperature, and the results show that the average time before failure (MTTF) of a single device exceeds one million hours. Such high reliability is mainly due to the high band gap value of GaN (GaN is 3.4 and GaAs is 1.4), which makes it particularly suitable for high reliability applications.The main obstacle to expanding the use of Gan in high-power applications is its relatively high manufacturing cost, which is usually two to three times higher than GaAs and five to seven times higher than Si LDMOS devices. This hinders its use in cost sensitive applications such as wireless infrastructure and consumer handheld devices. Now with the gallium nitride on silicon process, although there are the performance problems mentioned above, the devices produced by this process may be most suitable for cost sensitive applications. In the near future, as the manufacturing of Gan devices turns to larger wafers (with a diameter of 150mm and larger, at present, several leading Gan device foundries are under development), the cost is expected to be reduced by about 50%.Currently deployed radar systems for weather forecasting and target acquisition / recognition rely on TWT power amplifiers operating at C-band and X-band frequencies. These amplifiers operate at high supply voltage (10 kV to 100 kV) and high temperature, and are easy to be damaged due to excessive shock and vibration. The field reliability of these TWT amplifiers is usually only 1200 to 1500 hours, resulting in high maintenance and spare parts costs.As an alternative to high-power TWT amplifier, ADI company has developed an 8kw solid-state X-band power amplifier based on GaN technology. The design uses an innovative hierarchical merging method to add up the RF / microwave output power of 256 MMICs, and each MMIC produces an output power of about 35 W. When individual MMICs fail, this combination method ensures that the output performance will not degrade sharply. TWT amplifier is not so. Because of its low redundancy, a single fault often leads to catastrophic device failure. For this solid-state Gan power amplifier, the RF / microwave combining architecture must strike a reasonable balance between the required isolation between MMICs and the RF / microwave insertion loss of the whole network.The 8kw amplifier topology is modular, including four 2kW amplifier components, and its output power is combined by waveguide structure (Fig. 1). The amplifier can be installed in a standard 19 inch housing. The current design of the amplifier (Figure 2) uses water cooling, and other versions using air cooling are under development. Table 1 gives a summary of the performance of water-cooled 8 kW Gan PA.Figure 1. GaN based solid-state power amplifier can provide 8 kW output power and operate at X-band frequencyFigure 2. Block diagram reflecting the structure and devices of GaN and X-band solid-state power amplifiersThe 8 kW SSPA supports the combination of multiple modular SSPAs to produce higher power levels. An amplifier with three such 8 kW SSPA modules is currently being developed, which can achieve a peak output power level of 24 kW over the same frequency range. Other configurations to achieve a 32 kW power level are also feasible and are currently under consideration for further evaluation.ADI is currently developing an advanced power module, which is also based on GaN technology. Its RF / microwave output power will be twice that of the current module. The module is sealed to support operation in extreme environments. Combined with the next generation combined structure and lower insertion loss (compared with the current method), it will increase the pulse output power of RF / microwave frequency to nearly 75 kW to 100 kW. These advanced high-power SSPAs will include control and processor functions, support fault monitoring, built-in test (bit) function, remote diagnostic test, and control of fast real-time bias control circuits for MMIC devices that power amplifiers.This kind of Gan solid-state power amplifier is designed to meet the industry's demand for wide instantaneous bandwidth and high output power amplifier. Some systems attempt to meet these requirements using channelization or multiple amplifiers, each covering a portion of the required spectrum and fed into a multiplexer. This increases cost and complexity and results in voids at the frequency crossing point of the multiplexer. A more effective alternative solution is to continuously cover a wide frequency range at a higher power level, which has been achieved by two different Gan amplifiers covering VHF to L-band frequencies and 2 GHz to 18 GHz.For VHF to S-band frequencies, ADI has developed a very small size, rich functions and multiple frequency range amplifier, which can provide 50 W output power in the range of 115 MHz to 2000 MHz. In the full frequency range, the amplifier can achieve an output power level of 46 DBM (typical 40 W) when feeding a nominal input signal of 0 DBM.The amplifier uses a size of 7.3“ × 3.6" × 1.4 "compact package, with bit function, can provide heating and current overload protection and telemetry report, and integrate DC-DC converter to achieve the best RF performance. The input power range is 26 VDC to 30 VDC. Figure 3 shows the photo of the amplifier, and the relationship between typical measured performance data of output power and frequency is shown in Figure 4.Figure 3. Continuous wave (CW), 50 W, solid state power amplifier, operating frequency range 115 MHz to 2000 MHzFigure 4. Relationship between output power and frequency of 50 W, 115 MHz to 2000 MHz power amplifiersFigure 5. 50 W, CW output power amplifier, operating frequency range 2 GHz to 18 GHzFor broadband applications above 2 GHz, ADI has also developed a GaN amplifier, which can generate 50 W continuous wave (CW) in the frequency band of 2 GHz to 18 GHz Output power. This amplifier uses a commercial 10 W Gan MMIC, and its output power contribution is combined through a broadband low loss combining circuit. Multiple such amplifiers can also be combined to produce up to 200 W output power in the same 2 GHz to 18 GHz bandwidth. The drive amplifier chain is also based on GaN active devices. The amplifier uses 48 VDC power supply, built-in voltage regulator and high-speed on-off The circuit is closed, supports pulse operation, and has good pulse fidelity and fast rise / fall time. The specifications of this amplifier are listed in Table 2. Figure 5 shows a photo of the amplifier, and Figure 6 shows the functional relationship between the output power and frequency (2 GHz to 18 GHz).Figure 6. Relationship between output power and frequency of 50 W, 2 GHz to 18 GHz power amplifierThis 50 W amplifier is one of a series of amplifiers in the 2 GHz to 18 GHz band. ADI has also developed a compact desktop amplifier with 12W output power (Figure 7) and a rack mounted unit with 100W output power (Figure 8) Other amplifiers in the frequency range from 2GHz to 6GHz and from 6GHz to 18GHz are under development. ADI is also working to increase the output power of these broadband amplifiers from the current level to 200 W and higher. In order to achieve a higher output power level, ADI is developing high output power modules and broadband RF power combiners, which will greatly improve the combining efficiency and reduce the loss Lower than current power combiner.Figure 7. Broadband 2 GHz to 18 GHz power amplifier, generating 12 W CW output power in the full frequency rangeFigure 8. 2 GHz to 18 GHz solid state power amplifier, generating 100 W CW output power in the full frequency rangeThe above are some examples of the performance levels that can be achieved with Gan solid-state amplifiers. As more GaN semiconductor suppliers turn to larger wafers and the yield of each wafer continues to improve, the unit cost of such amplifiers is expected to be reduced in the future. With the shortening of gate length, GaN based SSPA will be able to support higher operating frequencies, so there will be more and more Gan amplifiers It is obvious that the current trend of Gan to improve performance and reduce cost should continue for some time.
The United States Will Launch 377 Investigation of Active Matrix OLED Equipment
According to China trade remedy information network, on January 27, 2021, the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) voted to launch 337 investigations on specific active matrix OLED display devices and their components.Solasoled Ltd, Ireland, December 28, 2020. Ofireland filed a 337 investigation application with ITC of the United States, claiming that the product exported, imported and sold in the United States infringed its patent right (U.S. registered patent numbers 7573068 and 7868880), and requested ITC of the United States to issue a limited exclusion order and prohibition order.Boetecnology Group Co, Beijing, China. Ltd。 Of China BOE Technology Group Co., Ltd., Beijing BOE Display Technology Co., Ltd., ltdofchina Beijing BOE Display Technology Co., Ltd., BOE technology America, incofsantaclara, CA, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., ltdofkorea, Samsung Electronics America, incofridgefield Park, NJ, Samsung display Co., Ltd, Ltdofkorea is the listed defendant.It is worth mentioning that in October 2020, Ireland solasoled ltd.ofireland will also apply inc.ofcupertino, CA, Dell technologies inc.ofroundrock, TX, lgelectronicsinc.ofsoul, South Korea, lgelectronicsusa, Inc., ofenglewood cliffs, NJ, lgdisplaymamerica, Inc., ofsanjose, CA, lgdisplayco., Ltd., ofsoul, SouthKorea, Motorola mobility Llco of Chicago, IL, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., of Gyeonggi do, South Korea, Samsung Electronics America, Inc., of Ridgefield Park, NJ, Samsung display Co., Ltd., of Gyeonggi do, South Korea, Sony Electronics Inc. of sandigo, CA are listed as the defendants and filed 337 application for investigation with ITC of the United States.The U.S. International Trade Commission will determine the completion period of the investigation within 45 days after filing the case. Unless rejected by the United States trade representative for policy reasons, the relief order issued by the United States International Trade Commission in case 337 shall take effect from the date of issuance and shall have final effect on the 60th day after the date of issuance. Editor ajx
Analysis of Isolation and Non Isolation of LED Driving Power Supply
At present, in the general LED lighting market, there are non isolated design and isolated driving power supply. The non isolated design is limited to double insulated products, such as alternative products of bulbs, in which the LED and the whole product are integrated and sealed in non-conductive plastic, so there is no risk of electric shock for the end user. Secondary products are isolated and relatively expensive, but where users can access led and output wiring (usually in LED lighting and street lighting applications), this product is essential.The LED driving power supply with isolation transformer or electrical isolation means that the LED can be directly touched by hand without electric shock. Although the LED driving power supply without isolation transformer can still realize partial mechanical insulation with the help of protective shell, the LED can not be directly contacted during operation.Insulated bulbs will become the mainstream in the futureThe physical design determines whether the drive is isolated or non isolated. Safety rules usually require the use of two separate isolation layers. Designers can choose two physical isolation layers, namely plastic astigmatism cover and glass cover, and use non isolated power supply. If the cost of physical isolation is too high, there are mechanical difficulties or absorb too much light, the problem of electrical isolation must be solved in the power supply.The isolated power supply is usually larger than the non isolated power supply with the same power level. Lighting designers must do a lot of cost and design optimization in each product they design. Because it is suitable for different applications, whether to use isolated insulated transformer or isolated protective lampshade shell, designers will always have different opinions from different angles.Usually, they will analyze from many aspects, such as cost and manufacturing process, efficiency and volume, insulation reliability and safety specification requirements, and so on. The driving cost with transformer is high, but it also makes LED lamps more practical, which can meet the needs of end users who accidentally touch led. When the glass shell of incandescent lamp is easy to be damaged, an ordinary bulb of model E27 can be replaced with LED lamp.In addition, lamps in industrial areas or office equipment applications do not need to contact end users, such as street lamps and mall lighting. At this time, LED lamps do need isolation transformers.As a product that can be safely used by end users, the reliability of insulation and isolation will be considered. As a complete product, the parts of the product surface that can be touched by users must be isolated from electric shock. In terms of the whole product system, isolation is inevitable, and the difference is only that the isolation location is different. Some designers use isolated transformer design, so they can simplify the design of heat dissipation and lampshade. If the non isolated drive design is used, the reliable insulation requirements must be considered in the structure of lamp shell and so on. Therefore, as a power driver, isolation and non isolation schemes always exist at the same time.The main challenge that Chinese LED drive power manufacturers may face is to find low-cost AC / DC drivers, so as to achieve more stringent power factor and efficiency performance in low-cost power supply systems. In the future, the use of high-quality and reliable power supply in systems with limited space and difficult heat dissipation (such as LED lamps) will no longer be free. However, before the end user has used many bulbs with a service life of about 10000 hours, it is very difficult to prove their high quality.Transformer based isolated LED driving power supply will be the mainstreamIsolated and non isolated LED driving power supply schemes have their own advantages and disadvantages. Industry insiders believe that ClassII will be the mainstream because it simplifies the problem of LED heat dissipation. Class I or II systems rely on the grounding system, which in most cases is closely related to the installation site. ClassII is more common. It requires two-stage or reinforced isolation, that is, it requires transformer magnetic winding, insulating tape and physical isolation. The classi system requires a grounded enclosure and / or mechanical barrier, which is not required by the ClassII system.At present, several trends are promoting the development of LED lighting market. The first is the continuous improvement of high brightness LED efficiency and the continuous emergence of highly efficient and reliable constant current LED driving power supply. The second is the global legislation prohibiting incandescent lighting (due to its low efficiency) and the gradual fading out of CFL energy-saving lamps (if broken, it will flow out mercury harmful to the environment). The combination of these factors is making LED lighting a long-term development trend. Of course, low system cost (including LED, thermal management system and LED driver) will always be the driving force for consumers to widely adopt LED general lighting.In fact, in many LED lighting products, failure is a common phenomenon, most of which is due to the failure of power supply rather than the failure of LED. At the design level, this means that the OEM must become an expert in system thermal design. LEDs provide high efficiency, but they also produce more conduction heat than incandescent or energy-saving lamps.Because many LED lighting applications are enclosed in a small space, it is difficult to dissipate heat by ventilation. Without careful thermal design, led and power drive circuits are easy to degrade or permanently fail due to high temperature.
Revealed: How Governments Can Take Control of Smartphones
Operating since 2001, the Milan-based Hacking Team employs over 50 people and offers clients the ability to “take control of your targets and monitor them regardless of encryption and mobility," while “keeping an eye on all your targets and manage them remotely, all from a single screen.” It’s the first time Remote Control Systems (RCS) malware has been positively linked with mobile phones and it opens up a new privacy threat potential to mobile phone users.“Our latest research has identified mobile modules that work on all well-known mobile platforms, including as Android and iOS,”wrote Kaspersky researcher Sergey Golovanov.“These modules are installed using infectors – special executables for either Windows or Macs that run on already infected computers. They translate into complete control over the environment in and near a victim’s computer. Secretly activating the microphone and taking regular camera shots provides constant surveillance of the target – which is much more powerful than traditional cloak and dagger operations.” Police can install the spy malware directly into the phone if there is direct access to the device, or if the owner of the phone connects to an already infected computer, according to Wired. Various softwares can also lure users to download targeted fake apps. Once inside an iPhone, for instance, it can access and activate all of the following: control of Wi-Fi, GPS, GPRS, recording voice, e-mail, SMS, MMS, listing files, cookies, visited URLs, cached web pages, address book, call history, notes, calendar, clipboard, list of apps, SIM change, live microphone, camera shots, support chats, WhatsApp, Skype, and Viber. While the malware can be spotted by some of the more sophisticated anti-virus software, it takes special measures to avoid detection – such as “scouting” a victim before installation, “obfuscating” its presence, and removing traces of its activity. Hacking Team has maintained that its products are used for lawful governmental interceptions, adding that it does not sell items to countries blacklisted by NATO or repressive regimes. Wired reported that there have been cases where the spying apps were used in illegal ways in Turkey, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia. Citizen Lab discovered spying malware hiding in a legitimate news app for Qatif Today, an Arabic-language news and information service that reports on events in Saudi Arabia's eastern Qatif region. It also argued that circumstantial evidence pointed to Saudi Arabia’s government using the spying malware against Shia protesters in the area.“This type of exceptionally invasive toolkit, once a costly boutique capability deployed by intelligence communities and militaries, is now available to all but a handful of governments. An unstated assumption is that customers that can pay for these tools will use them correctly, and primarily for strictly overseen, legal purposes. As our research has shown, however, by dramatically lowering the entry cost on invasive and hard-to-trace monitoring, the equipment lowers the cost of targeting political threats for those with access to Hacking Team and Gamma Group toolkits,” Citizen Lab said in its report. Hacking Team controls the spying malware remotely via command-and-control servers. Kaspersky has discovered more than 350 such servers in more than 40 countries. A total of 64 servers were found in the US – more than in any other country. Kazakhstan came in second, with a total of 49 servers found. Thirty-five were found in Ecuador and 32 in the UK.
Comparison Between High Pressure Sodium Lamp and LED Lamp
Types of high pressure sodium lamps1) Ordinary high pressure sodium lamp this kind of lamp uses atmosphere as starting gas, and the vapor pressure of sodium in discharge tube ensures the maximum luminous efficiency of the lamp. It is characterized by high light efficiency and long service life, but the light color is poor, and the general color rendering index is only 15-30. Therefore, it can only be used for lighting in roads, plant areas, etc.2) The high-pressure sodium lamp directly replacing the fluorescent high-pressure mercury lamp is produced for the promotion of high-pressure sodium lamp. It can be directly used in fluorescent high-pressure mercury lamp ballasts and lamp devices of similar specifications.3) In order to expand the application of high-pressure sodium lamp in indoor and outdoor lighting, the color temperature and color rendering of comfortable high-pressure sodium lamp are improved, so that the high-pressure sodium lamp is suitable for residential areas, industrial areas, retail commercial areas and public places.4) The high luminous efficiency high-pressure sodium lamp is filled with high pressure neon in the lamp tube, so that the lamp can obtain high luminous efficiency and improve the color rendering index. It can be used as an energy-saving light source for indoor lighting, especially suitable for factory lighting and sports lighting.5) High color rendering high pressure sodium lamp in order to meet the needs of high color rendering, people have successfully developed high color rendering high pressure sodium lamp, also known as white light high pressure sodium lamp. The improved lamp has a general color rendering index. Another important feature is that the color temperature increases to above, which is very close to incandescent lamps. Therefore, it has warm white tone and high color rendering, which plays a great role in beautifying the city and the environment. The lamp can be used for commercial lighting and lighting of high-end commodities such as gold jewelry, jewelry and precious leather goods, and the energy-saving effect is very remarkable.Main features of high pressure sodium lampHigh pressure sodium lamp emits golden white light when used. It has the advantages of high luminous efficiency, low power consumption, long service life, strong fog permeability and no insect attraction. It is widely used in roads, expressways, airports, docks, docks, stations, squares, street intersections, industrial and mining enterprises, parks, courtyard lighting and plant cultivation. High color rendering high pressure sodium lamps are mainly used in gymnasiums, exhibition halls, casinos, department stores, hotels and other places.Incandescent bulb emits warm color light when working, and its color rendering is excellent (color rendering index RA = 100). It is still a widely used lighting source for a long time since its birth. Although the use of high-pressure sodium lamp has many advantages, it has poor color rendering (RA = 30). In order to maintain the long life, high luminous efficiency and warm tone atmosphere of high-pressure sodium lamp; In terms of improving color rendering, people have developed high color rendering high-pressure sodium lamp (also known as white light high-pressure sodium lamp) which meets the above requirements through tireless efforts. Based on the high-pressure sodium lamp, the high color rendering high-pressure sodium lamp improves the color rendering by increasing the sodium vapor pressure and increasing the diameter of the arc tube, wrapping a layer of niobium foil at both ends of the arc tube and increasing the cold end temperature; In addition, by increasing the xenon pressure charged into the arc tube, the temperature of the central part of the arc increases, while the temperature of the rest of the discharge part is low. The color rendering is improved by changing the arc temperature distribution. Its color rendering index has been increased to RA = 70 80, and the luminous efficiency can reach more than 80 LM / W. it can broaden the application field and become a reality for using high color rendering high-pressure sodium to replace incandescent bulbs.1、 Comparison between LED lamp and high pressure sodium lamp -- Analysis and comparison of energy efficiencyThe lighting installation power of the two shall be compared on the premise of reaching the same illumination (brightness) level and approaching the lighting quality standard. Since the high-pressure sodium lamp high-power lamp tube (250 400W) has high light efficiency, up to 130 1401m / W, while the light efficiency of low-power lamp tube (100 150W) is about 80 1001m / W. the existing high-power LED street lamps mostly use 1wled tube, and their light efficiency is similar, so it is appropriate to analyze high-power street lamps and low-power street lamps respectively.1. High power (≥ 250W) street lamp: high pressure sodium lamp has high efficiency. Considering ballast loss, lamp efficiency and light channel utilization, if the comprehensive efficiency is calculated as 0.55, the effective light efficiency of sodium lamp is about 70 751m / W; The effective luminous efficiency of LED street lamps is about 621m / W in the United States, and the best enterprises in China have reached 56 581m / W. Therefore, for high-power street lamps, the energy efficiency of LED lamps is lower than that of sodium lamps.2. Low power (≤ 150W) street lamp: the effective luminous efficiency of sodium lamp (including the comprehensive efficiency of 0.55) is about 45 551m / W, while the LED is still calculated as 56 581m / W, so the LED can save energy by 10% 20% and up to 30% compared with sodium lamp. From the above analysis, it can be seen that when the low power (≤ 150W) is used for the branch, the LED street lamp can save energy by 10% 30% compared with the sodium lamp, while the high power still can not compare with the energy efficiency of the sodium lamp. Therefore, those who generally claim that led street lamps are more energy-saving than high-pressure sodium lamps, and even can save 50% and 60% energy, are obviously exaggerated and hyped. We should adhere to the principle of scientific analysis and seeking truth from facts, otherwise it is easy to mislead users and the masses.2、 Comparison between LED lamp and high pressure sodium lamp -- Analysis of light source color on road lighting effectThe relevant color temperature (TCP) of high pressure sodium lamp is about 2100K, which belongs to warm color temperature. Its color rendering index (RA) is only 23 25, and the color rendering is low; The color temperature of LED street lamps is more than 5300k, which is a good product with cold color temperature. Its RA can reach 70 80 and has good color rendering.3、 Comparison between LED lamp and high pressure sodium lamp -- economic analysis and comparisonHigh pressure sodium lamps, each set is about 1200 1500 yuan; At present, the price of LED street lamps varies greatly according to the power, about 4000 8000 yuan. In terms of the current situation, LED street lamps are obviously too expensive, and the price is as high as 3 5 times. As before? LEDs less than 150W can save energy by 10% 30% and save about 50 150kwh per lamp every year. It is impossible to recover the extra cost of purchasing lamps. It can only be expected that in the next few years, according to the development trend of LED, its price will gradually decline, energy efficiency will be further improved, and then its economic performance will be compared.4、 Comparison between LED lamp and high pressure sodium lamp -- service life analysisThe comparison of service life should be based on the service life of the whole lamp. High pressure sodium lamps include light sources, electrical accessories (mainly ballasts and triggers) and lamps. The average service life of sodium lamps used in street lamps is 3 5 years, and the energy-saving inductive ballasts will not be less than 20 years, as well as lamps.
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