What Should Be Paid Attention to When Using DAG and Fragmentation Technology to Expand the Performan

background

At present, many methods have been proposed in the market to expand the performance of blockchain. The most popular methods are technologies such as lightning or plasma, expanding block capacity, DAG and fragmentation.

Precautions for DAG

Projects such as iota, byteball and nano have proposed directed acyclic graph (DAG). They believe that it is not important for everyone to have a global state, but that nodes should only need their relevant local state and sufficient connections with other nodes to verify their local state.

In the absence of global state, an attacker can occupy the incoming connection of the victim node, and an attack such as eclipse attack may occur. Until May 2019, iota solved this problem by connecting everyone to the centralized coordinator. This can be said to overturn all views of DAG. They recently announced the transition from coordinator to voting module coordicide. It is expected that consensus participants will take the initiative to vote on conflict transactions. I think this sounds very similar to the traditional blockchain consensus.

Slice

Fragmented systems are similar to DAGs in that they recognize the importance of global state views and impose formal structures on the ledger to ensure consistency throughout the system. Fragmentation divides the verification work of the blockchain into several groups, and each component is responsible for a subset of the work.

Many designs are made for slicing, but few slicing designs are used in formal production. The main design consideration is whether there is a beacon chain. The role of beacon chain is very similar to that of traditional blockchain, but it does not verify the transaction and ledger status itself, but depends on each fragment to reach a consensus on its own status. This state is then compressed into a Merkle root, which is signed by a shard verifier. Then the beacon chain weaves the root of the fragment into a complete chain root.

Fragmentation can be carried out without beacon chain, but resources must be divided more equitably and prevent large-scale reorganization and fragmentation takeover attacks.

complexity

In the sharding system, the throughput is increased by dividing the number of Shards. The first key problem is to understand how the partition is divided. What protective measures should be taken to ensure that a large number of slices are not controlled by dishonest verifiers.

The above is a visual display. Even if only 1% of the verifiers focus on one slice, it will cause serious damage. Ethereum plans to use a restructuring process to assign verifiers to fragments in an unpredictable way to prevent dishonest participants from taking over fragments.

Cross slice communication

What happens to the boundaries of these segments? How do they communicate with each other? An obvious answer is that if an application is not on my slice, I can create a new account on another slice, or I can even use a cross slice service to get my wallet address on one slice and allow me to interact with applications on any other slice.

Imagine that you want to receive payment from a network participant who is not in the same slice as you. How can you get money from a movie you didn't participate in?

Visualized sample method proposed by Ethereum researchers

Here, we quote the concept of receipt. Recipients show evidence that they will receive tokens from the external shard by providing the Merkle path of the transaction in the source shard. The target shard will use the receipt and credit it to the recipient's account. These processes must be completed atomically.

Transactions in transit

True atomic transactions across shards are a challenge because it requires synchronous communication between verifiers between different Shards. If the demand for cross sharding transactions is very high, it will lead to performance degradation, because more sharding validators must cooperate to process cross sharding transactions.

The sharding system must establish a trust mechanism to ensure that the network will not reverse these transactions from the peripheral Shards. How to protect yourself from possible large-scale restructuring?

Our best answer so far is to ensure that the number of verifiers in the partition is higher than a minimum threshold, so the probability that the number of dishonest verifiers will overwhelm a single partition is very low. Regular (but not too frequent) rotation of verifiers limits the ability of verifiers in the pool to potentially bribe. However, if the verifiers rotate too frequently, the cost of running nodes will increase and the dispersion will be damaged, because nodes will need more storage and bandwidth to keep up with the changes of fragmentation.

Finality

Finality is a feature that greatly simplifies these problems. Once a block is marked as the final block by the economic majority in the system, we can determine that the external partition will not change below us. Finality seals the whole ledger so that it will not change, and previous cross slice transactions can be regarded as safe as only one chain.

Proof of ownership can guarantee the final result, while proof of work can never. This is why Ethereum developers have integrated POS and sharding into their eth2.0 roadmap.

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